Friedrich Nietzsche, Miscellaneous Maxims and opinions (Vermischte Meinungen und Sprüche).

Miscellaneous Maxims and Opinions, the first supplement to Human, All Too Human, first published in 1879.  A second supplement, The Wanderer and his Shadow (Der Wanderer und sein Schatten) followed in 1880.

  

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Previous Section   171. MUSIC AS A LATE-COMER IN EVERY CULTURE   Next Section

Music as a Late-Comer in every Culture.  Among all the arts that are accustomed to grow on a definite culture-soil and under definite social and political conditions, music is the last plant to come up, arising in the autumn and fading-season of the culture to which it belongs.  At the same time, the first signs and harbingers of a new spring are usually already noticeable, and sometimes music, like the language of a forgotten age, rings out into a new, astonished world, and comes too late.  In the art of the Dutch and Flemish musicians the soul of the Christian middle ages at last found its fullest tone r their sound-architecture is the posthumous but legitimate and equal sister of Gothic.  Not until Handel's music was heard the note of the best in the soul of Luther and his kin, the great Judaeo-heroical impulse that created the whole Reformation movement.  Mozart first expressed in golden melody the age of Louis XIV and the art of Racine' and Claude Lorrain.  The eighteenth century — that century of rhapsody, of broken ideals and transitory happiness — only sang itself out in the music of Beethoven and Rossini.  A lover of sentimental similes might say that all really important music was a swan-song.  Music is, in fact, not a universal language for all time, as is so often said in its praise, but responds exactly to a particular period and warmth of emotion which involves a quite definite, individual culture, determined by time and place, as its inner law.  The music of Palestrina would be quite unintelligible to a Greek; and again, what would the music of Rossini convey to Palestrina?  — It may be that our most modern German music, with all its preeminence and desire of pre-eminence, will soon be no longer understood.  For this music sprang from a culture that is undergoing a rapid decay, from the soil of that epoch of reaction and restoration in which a certain Catholicism of feeling, as well as a delight in all indigenous, national, primitive manners, burst into bloom and scattered a blended perfume over Europe.  These two emotional tendencies, adopted in their greatest strength and carried to their farthest limits, found final expression in the music of Wagner.  Wagner's predilection for the old native sagas, his free idealisation of their unfamiliar gods and heroes, — who are really sovereign beasts of prey with occasional fits of thoughtfulness, magnanimity, and boredom, — his reanimation of those figures, to which he gave in addition the mediaeval Christian thirst for ecstatic sensuality and spiritualisation — all this Wagnerian give-and-take with regard to materials, souls, figures, and words — would clearly express the spirit of his music, if it could not, like all music, speak quite unambiguously of itself.  This spirit wages the last campaign of reaction against the spirit of illumination which passed into this century from the last, and also against the super national ideas of French revolutionary romanticism and of English and American insipidity in the reconstruction of state and society.  But is it not evident that the spheres of thought and emotion apparently suppressed by Wagner and his school have long since acquired fresh strength, and that his late musical protest against them generally rings into ears that prefer to hear different and opposite notes; so that one day that high and wonderful art will suddenly become unintelligible and will be covered by the spider's web of oblivion?  — In considering this state of affairs we must not let ourselves be led astray by those transitory fluctuations which arise like a reaction within a reaction, as a temporary sinking of the mountainous wave in the midst of the general upheaval.  Thus, this decade of national war, ultramontane martyrdom, and socialistic unrest may, in its remoter after-effect, even aid the Wagnerian art to acquire a sudden halo, without guaranteeing that it "has a future" or that it has the future.  It is in the very nature of music that the fruits of its great culture-vintage should lose their taste and wither earlier than the fruits of the plastic arts or those that grow on the tree of knowledge.  Among all the products of the human artistic sense ideas are the most solid and lasting.  
 

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