Friedrich Nietzsche, Human All Too Human (Menschliches, Allzumenschliches), subtitled A Book for Free Spirits (Ein Buch für freie Geister).

First published in 1878.   A second part, Assorted Opinions and Maxims (Vermischte Meinungen und Sprüche), was published in 1879, and a third part, The Wanderer and his Shadow (Der Wanderer und sein Schatten), followed in 1880.

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FREE THINKER A RELATIVE TERM.  We call that man a free thinker who thinks otherwise than is expected of him in consideration of his origin, surroundings, position, and office, or by reason of the prevailing contemporary views.  He is the exception, fettered minds are the rule; these latter reproach him, saying that his free principles either have their origin in a desire to be remarkable or else cause free actions to be inferred, that is to say, actions which are not compatible with fettered morality.  Sometimes it is also said that the cause of such and such free principles may be traced to mental perversity and extravagance; but only malice speaks thus, nor does it believe what it says, but wishes thereby to do an injury, for the free thinker usually bears the proof of his greater goodness and keenness of intellect written in his face so plainly that the fettered spirits understand it well enough.  But the two other derivations of free thought are honestly intended; as a matter of fact, many free thinkers are created in one or other of these ways.  For this reason, however, the tenets to which they attain in this manner might be truer and more reliable than those of the fettered spirits.  In the knowledge of truth, what really matters is the possession of it, not the impulse under which it was sought, the way in which it was found.  If the free thinkers are right then the fettered spirits are wrong, and it is a matter of indifference whether the former have reached truth through immorality or the latter hitherto retained hold of untruths through morality.  Moreover, it is not essential to the free thinker that he should hold more correct views, but that he should have liberated himself from what was customary, be it successfully or disastrously.  As a rule, however, he will have truth, or at least the spirit of truth investigation, on his side; he demands reasons, the others demand faith.  

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