Friedrich Nietzsche, Daybreak:  Reflections on Moral Prejudice. Morgenröte: Gedanken über die moralischen Vorurteile (also could be translated as The Dawn).

Written and published in 1881.

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Misfortune and guilt: these two things have a relationship in Christianity so that when the misfortune which follows a fault is a serious one this fault is always judged accordingly to be serious.  Yet this was not the case in antiquity and that is why Greek tragedy—in which misfortune and punishment are discussed at length and yet in another sense—liberates the spirit in a manner of which the ancients themselves could not have been aware.  They remained innocent enough not to set up an "adequate relation "between guilt and misfortune.  The guilt of their tragic heroes is indeed the little pebble on which they may stumble and on which account they sometimes happen to break an arm or knock out an eye.  Upon this the feeling of antiquity would make such comments as "Well he should have trod his way with more caution and less pride".  It was reserved for Christianity however to say: "Here we have a great misfortune and behind this great misfortune there must lie a great fault an equally serious fault though we cannot clearly see it!  If wretched man you do not feel it it is because your heart is hardened—and worse than this will happen to you!  "Antiquity perceived simple misfortune misfortunes that were pure and innocent; it was only with the advent of Christianity that all punishment became well merited punishment: in addition to this it inflicts suffering on the imagination so that the victim in the midst of his distress is seized with the feeling that he has been morally reproved and cast out.  Poor humanity!  The Greeks had a special word to signify the feeling of indignation which was experienced at the misfortune of another: among Christian peoples this feeling was forbidden and was not permitted to develop; hence the reason why they have no name for this more manly brother of pity.  
 

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