Friedrich Nietzsche, Daybreak:  Reflections on Moral Prejudice. Morgenröte: Gedanken über die moralischen Vorurteile (also could be translated as The Dawn).

Written and published in 1881.

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The same impulse can evolve when under the impression of blame cast upon it by custom into the painful feeling of cowardice or else the pleasurable feeling of humility when a morality like that of Christianity has taken it to its heart and called it good.  In other words the same instinct will fall under the influence of either a good conscience or a bad one!  In itself like every instinct it does not possess either this or indeed any other moral character and name or even a definite accompanying feeling of pleasure or displeasure; it does not acquire all these qualities as its second nature until it comes into contact with impulses which have already been baptized as good and evil or has been recognised as the attribute of beings already weighed and valued by the people from a moral point of view.  Thus the ancient concept of envy differed entirely from ours.  Hesiod reckons it among the qualities of the good benevolent Eris and it was not considered as offensive to attribute some kind of envy even to the gods.  This is easy to understand in a state of things inspired mainly by contest but contest was looked upon as good and valued accordingly.  The Greeks were likewise different from us in the value they set upon hope: they conceived it as blind and deceitful.  Hesiod in one of his poems has made a strong reference to it—a reference so strong indeed that no modern commentator has quite understood it; for it runs contrary to the modern mind which has learnt from Christianity to look upon hope as a virtue.  Among the Greeks on the other hand the portal leading to a knowledge of the future seemed only partly closed and in innumerable instances it was impressed upon them as a religious obligation to inquire into the future in those cases where we remain satisfied with hope.  It thus came about that the Greeks thanks to their Oracles and Seers held Hope in small esteem and even lowered it to the level of an evil and a danger.  The Jews again took a different view of anger from that held by us and sanctified it: hence they have placed the sombre majesty of the wrathful man at an elevation so high that a European cannot conceive it.  They moulded their wrathful and holy Jehovah after the images of their wrathful and holy prophets.  Compared with them all the Europeans who have exhibited the greatest wrath are so to speak only second—hand creatures.  

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