Friedrich Nietzsche, Daybreak:  Reflections on Moral Prejudice. Morgenröte: Gedanken über die moralischen Vorurteile (also could be translated as The Dawn).

Written and published in 1881.

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Stoical The Stoic experiences a certain sense of cheerfulness when he feels oppressed by the ceremonial which he has prescribed for himself: he enjoys himself then as a ruler.  


Consider The man who is being punished is no longer he who has done the deed.  He is always the scapegoat.  


Appearance Alas!  What must be best and most resolutely proved is appearance itself; for only too many people lack eyes to observe it.  Yet it is so tiresome!  


Those who Anticipate What distinguishes poetic natures but is also a danger for them is their imagination which exhausts itself in advance: which anticipates what will happen or what may happen, which enjoys and suffers in advance and which at the final moment of the event or the action is already fatigued.  Lord Byron who was only too familiar with this wrote in his diary: "If ever I have a son he shall choose a very prosaic profession—that of a lawyer or a pirate".  


Conversation on Music A.  What do you say to that music?  B.  It has overpowered me I can say nothing about it.  Listen!  There it is beginning again.  A.  All the better!  This time let us do our best to overpower it.  Will you allow me to and a few words to this music?  And also to show you a drama which perhaps at your first hearing you did not wish to observe?  B.  Very well I have two ears and even more if necessary; move up closer to me.  A.  We have not yet heard what; he wishes to say to us up to the present he has only promised to say something—something as yet unheard so he gives us to understand by his gestures for they are gestures.  How he beckons!  How he raises himself up!  How he gesticulates!  And now the moment of supreme tension seems to have come to him: two more fanfares and he will present us with his superb and splendidly—adorned theme rattling as it were with precious stones.  Is it a handsome woman?  Or a beautiful horse?  Enough he looks about him as if enraptured for he must assemble looks of rapture.  It is only now that his theme quite pleases him: it is only now that he becomes inventive and risks new and audacious features.  How he forces out his theme!  Ah take care!  He not only understands how to adorn but also how to gloss it over!  Yes he knows what the colour of health is and he knows how to make it up—he is more subtle in his self-consciousness than I thought.  And now he is convinced that he has convinced his hearers; he sets off his impromptus as if they were the most important things under the sun: he points to his theme with an insolent finger as if it were too good for this world.  Ah how distrustful he is!  He is afraid we may get tired!  That is why he buries his melody in sweet notes.  Now he even appeals to our coarser senses that he may excite us and thus get us once again into his power.  Listen to him as he conjures up the elementary force of tempestuous and thundering rhythms!  And now that he sees that these things have captivated our attention strangle us and almost overwhelm us he once again ventures to introduce his theme amidst this play of the elements in order to convince us confused and agitated as we are that our confusion and agitation are the effects of his miraculous theme.  And from now onwards his hearers believe in him: as soon as the theme is heard once more they are reminded of its thrilling elementary effects.  The theme profits by this recollection—now it has become demoniacal!  What a connoisseur of the soul he is!  He gains command over us by all the artifices of the popular orator.  Yet the music has stopped again.  B.  And I am glad of it; for I could no longer bear listening to your observations!  I should prefer ten times over to let myself be deceived to knowing the truth once after your version.  A.  That is just what I wished to hear from you.  The best people now are just like you: you are quite content to let yourselves be deceived.  You come here with coarse lustful ears and you do not bring with you your conscience of the art of listening.  On the way here you have cast away your intellectual honesty and thus you corrupt both art and artists.  Whenever you applaud and cheer you have in your hands the conscience of the artists—and woe to art if they get to know that you cannot distinguish between innocent and guilty music!  I do not indeed refer to "good "and "bad "music—we meet with both in the two kinds of music mentioned!  Yet I call innocent music that which thinks only of itself and believes only in itself and which on account of itself has forgotten the world at large—this spontaneous expression of the most profound solitude which speaks of itself and with itself and has entirely forgotten that there are listeners effects misunderstandings and failures in the world outside.  In short the music which we have just heard is precisely of this rare and noble type; and everything I said about it was a fable—pardon my little trick if you will!  B.  Oh, then you like this music too?  In that case many sins shall be forgiven you!  


The Happiness of the Evil Ones These silent gloomy and evil men possess a peculiar something which you cannot dispute with them—an uncommon and strange enjoyment in the dolce far niente; a sunset and evening rest such as none can enjoy but a heart which has been too often devoured lacerated and poisoned by the passions.  


We always express our thoughts with those words which we have nearest to hand. Or rather if I may reveal my full suspicion;  we have at any moment only those thoughts for the words which we have to hand.  


Flattering the Dog You have only to stroke this dog's coat once and he immediately splutters and gives off sparks like any other flatterer—and he is witty in his own way.  Why should we not endure him thus?  


The Quondam Panegyrist "He has now become silent now in regard to me although he knows the truth and could tell it; but it would sound like vengeance—and he values truth so highly this honourable man!  " 260.  The Amulet of Dependent Men He who is unavoidably dependent upon some master ought to possess something by which he can inspire his master with fear and keep him in check: integrity for example or probity or an evil tongue.  


Why so Sublime!  Oh, I know them well this breed of animals!  Certainly it pleases them better to walk on two legs "like a god"— but it pleases me better when they fall back on their four feet.  This is incomparably more natural for them!  


The Demon of Power Neither necessity nor desire but the love of power is the demon of mankind.  You may give men everything possible—health food shelter enjoyment—but they are and remain unhappy and capricious for the demon waits and waits; and must be satisfied.  Let everything else be taken away from men and let this demon be satisfied and then they will nearly be happy—as happy as men and demons can be; but why do I repeat this?  Luther has already said it and better than I have done in the verses: "And though they take our life, Goods, honour, children, wife.  Yet is their profit small, These things shall vanish all.  The Kingdom it remaineth".  The Kingdom!  There it is again!  


Contradiction Incarnate and Animated There is a physiological contradiction in what is called genius: genius possesses on the one hand a great deal of savage disorder and involuntary movement and on the other hand a great deal of superior activity in this movement.  Joined to this a genius possesses a mirror which reflects the two movements beside one another and within one another but often opposed to one another.  Genius in consequence of this sight is often unhappy and if it feels its greatest happiness in creating it is because it forgets that precisely then with the highest determinate activity it does something fantastic and irrational (such is all art) and cannot help doing it.  


Deceiving One's Self Envious men with a discriminating intuition endeavour not to become too closely acquainted with their rivals in order that they may feel themselves superior to them.  


There is a Time for the Theatre When the imagination of a people begins to diminish there arises the desire to have its legends represented on the stage: it then tolerates the coarse substitutes for imagination.  In the age of the epic rhapsodist however the theatre itself and the actor dressed up as a hero form an obstacle in the path of the imagination instead of acting as wings for it—too near too definite too heavy and with too little of dreamland and the flights of birds about them.  


Without Charm He lacks charm and knows it.  Ah how skilful he is in masking this defect!  He does it by a strict virtue gloomy looks and acquired distrust of all men and of existence itself; by coarse jests by contempt for a more refined manner of living by pathos and pretensions and by a cynical philosophy—yea he has even developed into a character through the continual knowledge of his deficiency.  


Why so Proud?  A noble character is distinguished from a vulgar one by the fact that the latter has not at ready command a certain number of habits and points of view like the former: fate willed that they should not be his either by inheritance or by education.  


The Orator's Scylla and Charybdis How difficult it was in Athens to speak in such a way as to win over the hearers to one's cause without repelling them at the same time by the form in which one's speech was cast or withdrawing their attention from the cause itself by this form I How difficult it still is to write thus in France!  


Sick People and Art For all kinds of sadness and misery of soul we should first of all try a change of diet and severe manual labour; but in such cases men are in the habit of having recourse to mental intoxicants to art for example—which is both to their own detriment and that of art!  Can you not see that when you call for art as sick people you make the artists themselves sick?  


Apparent Toleration Those are good benevolent and rational words on and in favour of science but alas!  I see behind these words your toleration of science.  In a corner of your inmost mind you think in spite of all you say that it is not necessary for you that it shows magnanimity on your part to admit and even to advocate it more especially as science on its part does not exhibit this magnanimity in regard to your opinion!  Do you know that you have no right whatever to exercise this toleration?  That this condescension of yours is an even coarser disparagement of science than any of that open scorn which a presumptuous priest or artist might allow himself to indulge in towards science?  What is lacking in you is a strong sense for everything that is true and actual you do not feel grieved and worried to find that science is in contradiction to your own sentiments you are unacquainted with that intense desire for knowledge ruling over you like a law you do not feel a duty in the need of being present with your own eyes wherever knowledge exists and to let nothing that is "known" escape you.  You do not know that which you are treating with such toleration!  And it is only because you do not know it that you can succeed in adopting such a gracious attitude towards it.  You forsooth would look upon science with hatred and fanaticism if it for once cast its shining and illuminating glance upon you!  What does it matter to us then if you do exhibit toleration—and towards a phantom!  And not even towards us!  And what do we matter!  


Festive Moods It is exactly those men who aspire most ardently towards power who feel it indescribably agreeable to be overpowered!  To sink suddenly and deeply into a feeling as into a whirlpool!  To suffer the reins to be snatched out of their hand and to watch a movement which takes them they know not where!  Whatever or whoever may be the person or thing that renders us this service it is nevertheless a great service: we are so happy and breathless and feel around us an exceptional silence as if we were in the most central bowels of the earth.  To be for once entirely powerless!  The plaything of the elementary forces of nature!  There is a restfulness in this happiness a casting away of the great burden a descent without fatigue as if one had been given up to the blind force of gravity.  This is the dream of the mountain climber who although he sees his goal far above him nevertheless falls asleep on the way from utter exhaustion and dreams of the happiness of the contrast—this effortless rolling down hill.  I describe happiness as I imagine it to be in our present—day society the badgered ambitious society of Europe and America.  Now and then they wish to fall back into impotence—this enjoyment is offered them by wars arts religions and geniuses.  When a man has temporarily abandoned himself to a momentary impression which devours and crushes ever thing—and this is the modern festive mood—he afterwards becomes freer colder more refreshed and more strict and again strives tirelessly after the contrary of all this: power.  


The Purification of Races It is probable that there are no pure races but only races which have become purified and even these are extremely rare.  We more often meet with crossed races among whom together with the defects in the harmony of the bodily forms (for example when the eyes do not accord with the mouth) we necessarily always find defects of harmony in habits and appreciations.  (Livingstone heard someone say" God created white and black men but the devil created the half-castes.  ") Crossed races are always at the same time—crossed cultures and crossed moralities: they are as a rule more evil, cruel and restless.  Purity is the final result of innumerable adjustments, absorptions and eliminations; and progress towards purity in a race is shown by the fact that the latent strength in the race is more and more restricted to a few special functions whilst it formerly had to carry out too many and often contradictory things.  Such a restriction will always have the appearance of an impoverishment and must be judged with prudence and moderation.  In the long run however when the process of purification has come to a successful termination all those forces which were formerly wasted in the struggle between the disharmonious qualities are at the disposal of the organism as a whole and this is why purified races have always become stronger and more beautiful.  The Greeks may serve us as a model of a purified race and culture!  And it is to be hoped that some day a pure European race and culture may arise.  


Praise Here is someone who you perceive wishes to praise you: you bite your lips and brace up your heart: Oh, that that cup might go hence!  Yet it does not it comes!  let us therefore drink the sweet impudence of the panegyrist let us overcome the disgust and profound contempt that we feel for the innermost substance of his praise let us assume a look of thankful joy—for he wished to make himself agreeable to us!  And now that it is all over we know that he feels greatly exalted; he has been victorious over us.  Yes and also over himself the villain!  for it was no easy matter for him to wring this praise from himself.  


The Rights and Privileges of Man We human beings are the only creatures who when things do not go well with us can blot ourselves out like a clumsy sentence—whether we do so out of honour for humanity or pity for it or on account of the aversion we feel towards ourselves.  


The Transformed Being Now he becomes virtuous; but only for the sake of hurting others by being so.  Don't pay so much attention to him.  


How Often!  How Unexpected!  How may married men have some morning awakened to the fact that their young wife is dull although she thinks quite the contrary!  Not to speak of those wives whose flesh is willing but whose intellect is weak!  


Warm and Cold Virtues Courage is sometimes the consequence of cold and unshaken resolution and at other times of a fiery and reckless elan.  For these two kinds of courage there is only the one name!  but how different nevertheless are cold virtues and warm virtues!  And the man would be a fool who could suppose that "goodness "could only be brought about by warmth and no less a fool he who would only attribute it to cold.  The truth is that mankind has found both warm and cold courage very useful yet not often enough to prevent it from setting them both in the category of precious stones.  


The gracious Memory A man of high rank will do well to develop a gracious memory that is to note all the good qualities of people and remember them particularly; for in this way he holds them in an agreeable dependence.  A man may also act in this way towards himself: whether or not he has a gracious memory determines in the end the superiority gentleness or distrust with which he observes his own inclinations and intentions and finally even the nature of these inclinations and intentions.  


Wherein we become Artists He who makes an idol of someone endeavours to justify himself in his own eyes by idealising this person: in other words he becomes an artist that he may have a clear conscience.  When he suffers he does not suffer from his ignorance but from the lie he has told himself to make himself ignorant.  The inmost misery and desire of such a man—and all passionate lovers are included in this category—cannot be exhausted by normal means.  


Childlike Those who live like children—those who have not to struggle for their daily bread and do not think that their actions have any ultimate signification—remain childlike.  


Our Ego desires Everything It would seem as if men in general were only inspired by the desire to possess: languages at least would permit of this supposition for they view past actions from the standpoint that we have been put in possession of something—"I have spoken struggled conquered "— as if to say I am now in possession of my word my struggle my victory.  How greedy man appears in this light!  He cannot even let the past escape him: he even wishes to have it still!  


Danger in Beauty This woman is beautiful and intelligent: alas how much more intelligent she would have become if she had not been beautiful!  


Domestic and Mental Peace Our habitual mood depends upon the mood in which we maintain our habitual entourage.  


New Things as Old Ones Many people seem irritated when something new is told them: they feel the ascendancy which the news has given to the person who has learnt it first.  


What are the Limits of the Ego The majority of people take under their protection as it were something that they know as if the fact of knowing it was sufficient in itself to make it their property.  The acquisitiveness of the egoistic feeling has no limits: Great men speak as if they had behind them the whole of time and had placed themselves at the head of this enormous host; and good women boast of the beauty of their children their clothes their dog their physician or their native town but the only thing they dare not say is "I am all that".  Chi non Ha non e—as they say in Italy.  


Domestic Animals Pets and the Like Could there be anything more repugnant than the sentimentality which is shown to plants and animals—and this on the part of a creature who from the very beginning has made such ravages among them as their most ferocious enemy—and who ends by even claiming affectionate feelings from his weakened and mutilated victims!  Before this kind of "nature "man must above all be serious if he is any sort of a thinking being.  


Two Friends They were friends once but now they have ceased to be so and both of them broke off the friendship at the same time the one because he believed himself to be too greatly misunderstood and the other because he thought he was known too intimately—and both were wrong!  For neither of them knew himself well enough.  


The Comedy of the Noble Souls Those who cannot succeed in exhibiting a noble and cordial familiarity endeavour to let the nobleness of their nature be seen by their exercise of reserve and strictness and a certain contempt for familiarity as if their strong sense of confidence were ashamed to show itself.  


Where we may say Nothing against Virtue Among cowards it is thought bad form to say anything against bravery for any expression of this kind would give rise to some contempt; and unfeeling people are irritated when anything is said against pity.  


A Waste We find that with irritable and abrupt people their first words and actions generally afford no indication of their actual character—they are prompted by circumstances and are to some extent simply reproductions of the spirit of these circumstances.  Because however as the words have been uttered and the deeds done the subsequent words and deeds indicating the real nature of such people have often to be used to reconcile amend or extinguish the former.  


Arrogance Arrogance is an artificial and simulated pride; but it is precisely the essential nature of pride to be incapable of artifice simulation or hypocrisy—and thus arrogance is the hypocrisy of the incapacity for hypocrisy a very difficult thing and one which is a failure in most cases.  Yet if we suppose that as most frequently happens the presumptuous person betrays himself then a treble annoyance falls to his lot: people are angry with him because he has endeavoured to deceive them and because he wished to show himself superior to them and finally they laugh at him because he failed in both these endeavours.  How earnestly therefore should we dissuade our fellow men from arrogance!  


A Species of Misconception When we hear somebody speak it is often sufficient for his pronunciation of a single consonant (the letter r for example) to fill us with doubts as to the honesty of his feelings: we are not accustomed to this particular pronunciation and should have to make it ourselves as it were arbitrarily—it sounds "forced" to us.  This is the domain of the greatest possible misconception: and it is the same with the style of a writer who has certain habits which are not the habits of everybody.  His "artlessness "is felt as such only by himself and precisely in regard to that which he himself feels to be "forced "(because he has yielded in this matter to the prevailing fashion and to so called "good taste ") he may perhaps give pleasure and inspire confidence.  


Thankful One superfluous grain of gratitude and piety makes one suffer as from a vice—in spite of all one's independence and honesty one begins to have a bad conscience.  


It is the most sensual men who find it necessary to avoid women and to torture their bodies.  


The Subtlety of Serving One of the most subtle tasks in the great art of serving is that of serving a more than usually ambitious man who indeed is excessively egoistic in all things but is entirely adverse to being thought so (this is part of his ambition).  He requires that everything shall be according to his own will and humour yet in such a way as to give him the appearance of always having sacrificed himself and of rarely desiring anything for himself alone.  


Duelling I think it a great advantage said someone to be able to fight a duel—if of course it is absolutely necessary; for I have at all times brave companions about me.  The duel is the last means of thoroughly honourable suicide left to us; but it is unfortunately a circuitous means and not even a certain one.  


The surest way to corrupt the youth is to teach them to respect those who think as they do rather than those who think differently.  


Hero—Worship and its Fanatics The fanatic of an ideal that possesses flesh and blood is right as a rule so long as he assumes a negative attitude and he is terrible in his negation: he knows what he denies as well as he knows himself for the simple reason that he comes thence that he feels at home there and that he has always the secret fear of being forced to return there some day.  He therefore wishes to make his return impossible by the manner of his negation.  As soon as he begins to affirm however he partly shuts his eyes and begins to idealise (frequently merely for the sake of annoying those who have stayed at home).  We might say that there was something artistic about this—agreed but there is also something dishonest about it.  The idealist of a person imagines this person to be so far from him that he can no longer see him distinctly and then he travesties that which he can just perceive into something "beautiful "— that is to say symmetrical vaguely outlined uncertain.  Since he wishes to worship from afar that ideal which floats on high in the distance he finds it essential to build a temple for the object of his worship as a protection from the profanum vulgus.  He brings into this temple for the object of his worship all the venerable and sanctified objects which he still possesses so that his ideal may benefit by their charm and that nourished in this way it may grow more and more divine.  In the end he really succeeds in forming his God but alas for him!  there is someone who knows how all this has been done viz.  his intellectual conscience; and there is also someone who quite unconsciously begins to protest against these things viz.  the deified one himself who in consequence of all this worship praise and incense now becomes completely unbearable and shows himself in the most obvious and dreadful manner to be non—divine and only too human.  In a case like this there is only one means of escape left for such a fanatic; he patiently suffers himself and his fellows to be maltreated and interprets all this misery in maiorem dei gloriam by a new kind of self-deceit and noble falsehood.  He takes up a stand against himself and in doing so experiences as an interpreter and ill-treated person something like martyrdom—and in this way he climbs to the height of his conceit.  Men of this kind were to be found for example in the entourage of Napoleon: indeed perhaps it may have been he who inspired the soul of his century with that romantic prostration in the presence of the "genius "and the "hero" which was so foreign to the spirit of rationalism of the nineteenth century—a man about whom even Byron was not ashamed to say that he was a "worm compared with such a being".  (The formulae of this prostration have been discovered by Thomas Carlyle that arrogant old muddle—head and grumbler who spent his long life in trying to romanticise the common sense of his Englishmen: but in vain !)  


The Appearance of Heroism Throwing ourselves in the midst of our enemies may be a sign of cowardice.  


Condescending towards the Flatterer It is the ultimate prudence of insatiably ambitious men not only to conceal their contempt for man which the sight of flatterers causes them: but also to appear even condescending to them like a God who can be nothing if not condescending.  


"Strength of Character".  "What I have said once I will do "— This manner of thinking is believed to indicate great strength of character.  How many actions are accomplished not because they have been selected as being the most rational but because at the moment when we thought of them they influenced our ambition and vanity by some means or another so that we do not stop until we have blindly carried them out.  Thus they strengthen in us our belief in our character and our good conscience in short our strength; whilst the choice of the most rational acts possible brings about a certain amount of scepticism towards ourselves and thus encourages a sense of weakness in us.  


Once Twice and Thrice True Men lie unspeakably and often but they do not think about it afterwards and generally do not believe in it.  


The Pastime of the Psychologist He thinks he knows me and fancies himself to be subtle and important when he has any kind of relations with me; and I take care not to undeceive him.  For in such a case I should suffer for it while now he wishes me well because I arouse in him a feeling of conscious superiority.  There is another who fears that I think I know him and feels a sense of inferiority at this.  As a result he behaves in a timid and vacillating manner in my presence and endeavours to mislead me in regard to himself so that he may regain an ascendancy over me.  


The Destroyers of the World When some men fail to accomplish what they desire to do they exclaim angrily "May the whole world perish!  "This odious feeling is the height of envy which reasons thus: because I cannot have one thing the whole world in general must have nothing!  The whole world shall not exist!  


Greed When we set out to buy something our greed increases with the cheapness of the object—Why?  Is it because the small differences in price make up the little eye of greed?  


The Greek Ideal What did the Greeks admire in Ulysses?  Above all his capacity for lying and for taking a shrewd and dreadful revenge his being equal to circumstances his appearing to be nobler than the noblest when necessary his ability to be everything he desired his heroic pertinacity having all means within his command possessing genius—the genius of Ulysses is an object of the admiration of the gods they smile when they think of it—all this is the Greek ideal!  What is most remarkable about it is that the contradiction between seeming and being was not felt in any way and that as a consequence it could not be morally estimated.  Were there ever such accomplished actors?  


Facta!  Yes Facta Ficta!  The historian need not concern himself with events which have actually happened but only those which are supposed to have happened; for none but the latter have produced an effect.  The same remark applies to the imaginary heroes.  His theme—this so-called world-history—what is it but opinions on imaginary actions and their imaginary motives which in their turn give rise to opinions and actions the reality of which however is at once evaporated and is only effective as vapour—a continual generating and impregnating of phantoms above the dense mists of unfathomable reality.  All historians record things which have never existed except in imagination.  


Not to understand Trade is Noble To sell one's virtue only at the highest price or even to carry on usury with it as a teacher a civil servant or an artist for instance brings genius and talent down to the level of the common tradesman.  We must be careful not to be clever with our wisdom!  


Fear and Love The general knowledge of mankind has been furthered to a greater extent by fear than by love; for fear endeavours to find out who the other is what he can do and what he wants: it would be dangerous and prejudicial to be deceived on this point.  On the other hand love is induced by its secret craving to discover as many beautiful qualities as possible in the loved object or to raise this loved object as high as possible: it is a joy and an advantage to love to be deceived in this way—and this is why it does it.  


Good-natured People Good-natured people have acquired their character from the continual fear of foreign attacks in which their ancestors lived—these ancestors who were in the habit of mitigating and tranquillising humbling themselves preventing distracting flattering and apologising concealing their grief and anger and preserving an unruffled countenance—and they ultimately bequeathed all this delicate and well—formed mechanism to their children and grandchildren.  These latter thanks to their more favourable lot did not experience this feeling of dread but they nevertheless continue in the same groove.  


The so-called Soul The sum-total of those internal movements which come naturally to men and which they can consequently set in motion readily and gracefully is called the soul—men are looked upon as void of soul when they let it be seen that their inward emotions are difficult and painful to them.  


The Forgetful Ones In outbursts of passion and the delusions of dreams and madness man rediscovers his own primitive history and that of humanity: animality and its savage grimaces.  For once his memory stretches back into the past while his civilised condition is developed from the forgetfulness of these primitive experiences that is to say from the failing of this memory.  He who as a forgetful man of a higher nature has always remained aloof from these things does not understand men—but it is an advantage if from time to time there are individuals who do not understand men individuals who are so to speak created from the divine seed and born of reason"!  


The friend whose hopes we cannot satisfy is one we should prefer to have as an enemy.  


In the Society of Thinkers In the midst of the ocean of becoming we adventurers and birds of passage wake up on an island no larger than a small boat and here we look round us for a moment with as much haste and curiosity as possible; for how quickly may some gale blow us away or some wave sweep over the little island and leave nothing of us remaining!  Here however upon this little piece of ground we meet with other birds of passage and hear of still earlier ones—and thus we live together for one precious minute of recognition and divining amid the cheerful fluttering of wings and joyful chirping and then adventure in spirit far out on the ocean feeling no less proud than the ocean itself.  


Parting with Something To give up some of our property or to waive a right gives pleasure when it denotes great wealth.  Generosity may be placed in this category.  


Weak Sects Those sects which feel that they will always remain weak hunt up a few intelligent individual adherents wishing to make up in quality what they lack in quantity.  This gives rise to no little danger for intelligent minds.  


The Judgment of the Evening The man who meditates upon his day's and life's work when he has reached the end of his journey and feels weary generally arrives at a melancholy conclusion; but this is not the fault of the day or his life but of weariness In the midst of creative work we do not take time as a rule to meditate upon life and existence nor yet in the midst of our pleasures; but if by a chance this did happen once we should no longer believe him to be right who waited for the seventh day and for repose to find everything that exists very beautiful.  He had missed the right moment.  


Beware of Systemisers!  There is a certain amount of comedy about systemisers: in trying to complete a system and set its boundaries they attemp to make their weaker qualities appear in the same style as their stronger ones.  They wish to represent complete and uniformly strong natures.  


Hospitality The object of hospitality is to paralyse all hostile feeling in a stranger.  When we cease to look upon strangers as enemies the need for hospitality diminishes; it flourishes so long as its evil presupposition does.  


The Weather An exceptional and uncertain state of the weather makes men suspicious even of one another: at the same time they come to like innovations for they must diverge from their accustomed habits.  This is why despots like those countries where the weather is moral.  


Danger in Innocence Innocent people become easy victims in all circumstances because their lack of knowledge prevents them from distinguishing between moderation and excess and from being betimes on their guard against themselves.  It is as a result of this that innocent that is ignorant young women become accustomed to the frequent enjoyment of sexual intercourse and feel the want of it very much in later years when their husbands fall ill or grow prematurely old It is on account of this harmless and orthodox concept as if frequent sexual intercourse were right and proper that they come to experience a need which afterwards exposes them to the severest tribulations and even worse.  Considering the matter however from a higher and more general point of view whoever loves a man or a thing without knowing him or it falls a prey to something which he would not love if he could see it.  In all cases where experience ^ precautions and prudent steps are required it is the innocent man who will be most thoroughly corrupted for he has to drink with closed eyes the dregs and most secret poison of everything put before him.  Let us consider the procedure of all princes churches sects parties and corporations: Is not the innocent man always used as the sweetest bait for the most dangerous and wicked traps?  Just as Ulysses availed himself of the services of the innocent Neoptolemos to cheat the old and infirm anchorite and ogre of Lemnos out of his bow and arrows.  Christianity with its contempt for the world has made ignorance a virtue—innocence perhaps because the most frequent result of this innocence is precisely as I have indicated above guilt the sense of guilt and despair: In other words a virtue which leads to Heaven by the circuitous route of Hell; for only then can the gloomy propylaea of Christian salvation be thrown open and only then is the promise of a posthumous second innocence effective.  This is one of the finest inventions of Christianity!  


Living without a Doctor when Possible It seems to me that a sick man lives more carelessly when he is under medical observation than when he attends to his own health.  In the first case it suffices for him to obey strictly all his Doctor's prescriptions; but in the second case he gives more attention to the ultimate object of these prescriptions namely his health; he observes much more and submits himself to a more severe discipline than the directions of his physician would compel him to do.  All rules have this effect: they distract our attention from the fundamental aim of the rule and make us more thoughtless.  Yet to what heights of immoderation and destruction would men have risen if ever they had completely and honestly left everything to the Godhead as to their physician and acted in accordance with the words "as God will "!  


The Darkening of the Heavens Do you know the vengeance of those timid people who behave in society just as if they had stolen their limbs?  The vengeance of the humble Christian-like souls who just manage to slink quietly through the world?  The vengeance of those who always judge hastily and are as hastily said to be in the wrong?  The vengeance of all classes of drunkards for whom the morning is always the most miserable part of the day?  And also of all kinds of invalids and sick and depressed people who have no longer the courage to become healthy?  The number of these petty vengeful people and even more the number of their petty acts of revenge is incalculable.  The air around us is continually whizzing with the discharged arrows of their malignity so that the sun and the sky of their lives become darkened thereby—and alas!  Not only theirs but more often ours and other men's: and this is worse than the frequent wounds which they make on our skins and hearts.  Do we not occasionally deny the existence of the sun and sky merely because we have not seen them for so long?  Well then solitude!  Because of this solitude!  


The Psychology of the Actor It is the blissful illusion of all great actors to imagine that the historical personages whom they are representing were really in the same state of mind as they themselves are when interpreting them—but in this they are very much mistaken.  Their powers of imitation and divination which they would fain exhibit as a clairvoyant faculty penetrate only far enough to explain gestures accent and looks and in general anything exterior: that is they can grasp the shadow of the soul of a great hero statesman or warrior or of an ambitious jealous or desperate person—they penetrate fairly near to the soul but they never reach the inmost spirit of the man they are imitating.  It would indeed be a fine thing to discover that instead of thinkers psychologists or experts we required nothing but clairvoyant actors to throw light upon the essence of any condition.  Let us never forget whenever such pretensions are heard that the actor is nothing but an ideal ape—so much of an ape is he indeed that he is not capable of believing in the "essence" or in the "essential": everything becomes for him merely performance intonation attitude stage scenery and public.  


Living and Believing Apart The means of becoming the prophet and wonder—worker of one's age are the same today as in former times: one must live apart with little knowledge some ideas and a great deal of presumption—we then finish by believing that mankind cannot do without us because it is clear that we can do without it.  When we are inspired with this belief we find faith.  Finally a piece of advice to him who needs it (it was given to Wesley by Boehler his spiritual teacher): "Preach faith until you have it; then you will preach it because you have it!  " 326.  Knowing our Circumstances We may estimate our powers but not our power.  Not only do circumstances conceal it from us and show it to us time about but they even exaggerate or diminish it.  We must consider ourselves as variable quantities whose productive capacity may in favourable circumstances reach the greatest possible heights: we must therefore reflect upon these circumstances and spare no pains in studying them.  


A Fable The Don Juan of knowledge— no philosopher or poet has yet succeeded in discovering him.  He is wanting in love for the things he recognises but he possesses with a lust for the hunting after knowledge and the intrigues in connection with it and he finds enjoyment in all these even up to the highest and most distant stars of knowledge—until at last there is nothing left for him to pursue but the absolutely injurious side of knowledge just as the drunkard who ends by drinking absinthe and aqua fortis.  That is why last of all he feels a longing for hell for this is the final knowledge which seduces him.  Perhaps even this would disappoint him as all things do which one knows!  And then he would have to stand still for all eternity a victim to eternal deception and transformed into his enemy the Stony Guest who longs for an evening meal of knowledge which will never more fall to his share!  For the whole world of things will not have another mouthful left to offer to these hungry men.  


What Idealistic Theories Disclose We are most certain to find idealistic theories among unscrupulously practical men; for such men stand in need of the lustre of these theories for the sake of their reputation.  They adopt them instinctively without by any means feeling hypocritical in doing so—no more hypocritical than Englishmen with their Christianity and their Sabbath—keeping.  On the other hand contemplative natures who have to keep themselves on their guard against all kind s of fantasies and who dread to be reputed as enthusiasts are only to be satisfied with hard realistic theories: they take possession of them under the same instinctive compulsion without thereby losing their honesty.  


The Calumniators of Cheerfulness People who have been deeply wounded by the disappointments of life look with suspicion upon all cheerfulness as if it were something childish and puerile and revealed a lack of common sense that moves them to pity and tenderness such as one would experience when seeing a dying child caressing his toys on his death-bed.  Such men appear to see hidden graves under every rose; rejoicings tumult and cheerful music appear to them to be the voluntary illusions of a man who is dangerously ill and yet wishes to take a momentary draught from the intoxicating cup of life.  Yet this judgment about cheerfulness is merely the reflection of the latter on the dark background of weariness and ill-health: in itself it is something touching irrational and pitiable even childlike and puerile but connected with that second childhood which follows in the train of old age and is the harbinger of death.  


Not yet Enough!  It is not sufficient to prove a case we must also tempt or raise men to it: hence the wise man must learn to convey his wisdom; and often in such a manner that it may sound like foolishness!  


Right and Limits Asceticism is the proper mode of thinking for those who must extirpate their carnal instincts because these are ferocious beasts—but only for such people!  


The Bombastic Style An artist who does not wish to put his elevated feelings into a work and thus unburden himself but who rather wishes to impart these feelings of elevation to others becomes pompous and his style becomes the bombastic style.  


"Humanity".  We do not consider animals as moral beings.  Yet do you think that animals consider us as moral beings?  An animal which had the power of speech once said: "Humanity is a prejudice from which we animals at least do not suffer".  


The Charitable Man The charitable man gratifies a need of his own inward feelings when doing good.  The stronger this need is the less does such a man try to put himself in the place of those who serve the purpose of gratifying his desire: he becomes indelicate and sometimes even offensive.  (This remark applies to the benevolence and charity of the Jews which as is well known is somewhat more effusive than that of other peoples.)  * 335.  That Love may be felt as Love We must be honest towards ourselves and must know ourselves very well indeed to be able to practise upon others that humane dissimulation known as love and kindness.  


What are we capable of?  A man who had been tormented all day by his wicked and malicious son slew him in the evening and then with a sigh of relief said to the other members of his family: "Well now we can sleep in peace".  Who knows what circumstances might drive us to!  


"Natural".  To be natural at least in his deficiencies is perhaps the last praise that can be bestowed upon an artificial artist who is in other respects theatrical and half genuine.  Such a man will for this very reason boldly parade his deficiencies.  


Conscience—Substitute One man is another's conscience: and this is especially important when the other has none else.  


The Transformation of Duties When our duties cease to be difficult of accomplishment and after long practice become changed into agreeable delights and needs then the rights of others to whom our duties (though now our inclinations) refer change into something else: that is they become the occasion of pleasant feelings for us.  Henceforth the "other" by virtue of his rights becomes an object of love to us instead of an object of reverence and awe as formerly.  It is our own pleasure we seek when we recognise and maintain the extent of his power.  When the Quietists no longer felt their Christian faith as a burden and experienced their delight only in God they took the motto: "Do all to the glory of God".  Whatever they performed henceforth in this sense was no longer a sacrifice it was as much as to say "Everything for the sake of our pleasure".  To demand that duty should be always rather burdensome as Kant does is to demand that it shall never develop into a habit or custom.  There is a small residue of ascetic cruelty in this demand.  


Appearances are against the Historian It is a sufficiently demonstrated fact that human beings come from the womb; nevertheless when children grow up and stand by the side of their mother this hypothesis appears very absurd—all appearances are against it.  


The Advantage of Ignorance Someone has said that in his childhood he experienced such contempt for the caprices and whims of a melancholy temperament that until he had grown up and had become a middle-aged man he did not know what his own temperament was like: it was precisely a melancholy temperament.  He declared that this was the best of all possible kinds of ignorance.  


Do not be deceived!  Yes he examined the matter from every side and you think him to be a man of profound knowledge.  Yet he only wishes to lower the price—he wants to buy it!  


A Moral Pretence You refuse to be dissatisfied with yourselves or to suffer from yourselves and this you call your moral tendency!  Very well; another may perhaps call it your cowardice!  One thing however is certain and that is that you will never take a trip round the world (and you yourselves are this world) and you will always remain in yourselves an accident and a clod on the face of the earth!  Do you fancy that we who hold different views from you are merely exposing ourselves out of pure folly to the journey through our own deserts swamps and glaciers and that we are voluntarily choosing grief and disgust with ourselves like the Stylites?  


Subtlety in Mistakes If Homer as they say sometimes nodded he was wiser than all the artists of sleepless ambition.  We must allow admirers to stop for a time and take breath by letting them find fault now and then; for nobody can bear an uninterruptedly brilliant and untiring excellence—and instead of doing good such a master would merely become a taskmaster whom we hate while he precedes us.  


Our Happiness is not an Argument either Pro or Con Many men are only capable of a small share of happiness: and it is not an argument against their wisdom if this wisdom is unable to afford them a greater degree of happiness any more than it is an argument against medical skill that many people are incurable and others always ailing.  May everyone have the good fortune to discover the concept of existence which will enable him to realise his greatest share of happiness!  Though this will not necessarily prevent his life from being miserable and not worth envying.  


The Enemies of Women "Woman is our enemy"—the man who speaks to men in this way exhibits an unbridled lust which not only hates itself but also its means.  


The School of the Orator When a man has kept silence for a whole year he learns to stop chattering and to discourse instead.  The Pythagoreans were the best statesmen of their age.  


The Feeling of Power Note the distinction: the man who wishes to acquire the feeling of power seizes upon any means and looks upon nothing as too petty which can foster this feeling.  He who already possesses power however has grown fastidious and refined in his tastes; few things can be found to satisfy him.  


Not so very Important When we are present at a death—bed there regularly arises in us a thought that we immediately suppress from a false sense of propriety: the thought that the act of dying is less important than the customary veneration of it would wish us to believe and that the dying man has probably lost in his life things which were more important than he is now about to lose by his death.  In this case the end is certainly not the goal 350.  The best way to Promise When a man makes a promise it is not merely the word that promises but what lies unexpressed behind the word.  Words indeed weaken a promise by discharging and using up a power which forms part of that power which promises.  Therefore shake hands when making a promise but put your finger on your lips—in this way you will make the safest promises.  

Friedrich Nietzsche, "Ecce Homo" Ebook

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