Friedrich Nietzsche, Daybreak:  Reflections on Moral Prejudice. Morgenröte: Gedanken über die moralischen Vorurteile (also could be translated as The Dawn).

Written and published in 1881.

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Better Men They tell me that our art is meant for the men of the present day these greedy unsatisfied undisciplined disgusted and harassed spirits and that it exhibits to them a picture of I go happiness exaltation and unworldliness beside that of their own brutality so that for once they may forget and breathe freely; nay perhaps find that they may derive some encouragement towards flight and conversion from that oblivion.  Poor artists with such a public as this; half of whose thoughts require the attention of a priest and the other half the attention of an alienist!  How much happier was Corneille—"Our great Corneille!  "as Madame de Sevigne exclaimed with the accent of a woman in the presence of a whole man—how far superior was his audience which he could please with pictures of chivalric virtues strict duty generous devotion and heroic self-denial!  How differently did he and they love existence not as coming from blind and confused "will" which we curse because we cannot destroy it; but loving existence as a place so to speak where greatness joined with humanity is possible and where even the greatest restraint of form such as submission to the caprice of priests and princes could not suppress either the pride chivalric feeling the grace or the intellect of individuals but could on the contrary be felt as a charm and incentive as a welcome contrast to innate self-glorification and distinction and the inherited power of volition and passion.  


The Desire for Perfect Opponents It cannot be denied that the French have been the most Christian nation in the world not because the devotion of masses in France has been greater than elsewhere but because those Christian ideals which are most difificult to realise have become incarnated here instead of merely remaining fancies intentions or imperfect beginnings.  Take Pascal for example the greatest of all Christians in his combination of ardour intellect and honesty and consider what elements had to be combined in his case!  Take Fenelon the most perfect and attractive embodiment of ecclesiastical culture in all its power: a sublime golden mean of whom a historian would be tempted to prove the impossibility whilst in reality he was merely the perfection of something exceedingly difficult and improbable.  Take Madame de Guyon among her companions the French Quietists: and everything that the eloquence and ardour of the Apostle Paul has endeavoured to divine with regard to the Christian's state of semi-divinity this most sublime loving silent and ecstatic state is seen verified in her without however that Jewish obtrusiveness that Paul showed towards God—due in the case of Madame de Guyon to the real old French artlessness in words and gestures artlessness at once womanly subtle and distinguished.  Consider again the founder of the Trappists—the last person who really took seriously the ascetic ideal of Christianity not because he was an exception among Frenchmen but because he was a true Frenchman: for up to our own day his gloomy organisation has not been able to acclimatise itself and to prosper except among Frenchmen; and it has followed them into Alsace and Algeria.  Let us not forget the Huguenots either: that combination of a martial and industrial spirit refined manners and Christian severity has never been more beautifully exhibited.  And it was at Port Royal that the great Christian erudition beheld its last era of prosperity; and in France more than anywhere else great men know how to prosper.  Though not at all superficial a great Frenchman has always his apparent superficiality;—he has so to speak a natural skin for his real contents and depth—while on the other hand the depth of a great German is generally as it were closed up in an ugly—shaped box like an elixir which by means of a hard and curious covering endeavours to preserve itself from the light of day and the touch of thoughtless hands.  And now let us endeavour to find out why a people like the French so prolific in perfect types of Christians likewise necessarily brought forth the perfect contrary types those of unchristian free—thought!  The French free—thinker in his own inward being had to fight against truly great men and not like the free—thinkers of other nations merely against dogmas and sublime abortions.  


Esprit and Morals The German who possesses the secret of knowing how to be tedious in spite of wit knowledge and feeling and who has habituated himself to consider tediousness as moral is in dread in the presence of French esprit lest it should tear out the eyes of morality—but a dread mingled with "fascination" like that experienced by the little bird in the presence of the rattlesnake.  Amongst all the celebrated Germans none possessed more esprit than Hegel but he also had that great German dread of it which brought about his peculiar and defective style.  For the nature of this style resembles a kernel which is wrapped up so many times in an outer covering that it can scarcely peep through now and then glancing forth bashfully and inquisitively like "young women peeping through their veils" to use the words of that old woman hater Aeschylus.  This kernel however is a witty though often impertinent joke on intellectual subjects a subtle and daring combination of words such as is necessary in a society of thinkers as gilding for a scientific pill—but enveloped as it is in an almost impenetrable cover it exhibits itself as the most abstruse science and likewise as the worst possible moral tediousness.  Here the Germans had a permissible form of esprit and they revelled in it with such boundless delight that even Schopenhauer's unusually fine understanding could not grasp it—during the whole of his life he thundered against the spectacle that the Germans offered to him but he could never explain it.  


Vanity of the Teachers of Morals The relatively small success which teachers of morals have met with may be explained by the fact that they wanted too much at once i.  e.  they were too ambitious and too fond of laying down precepts for everybody.  In other words they were beating the air and making speeches to animals in order to turn them into men; what wonder then that the animals thought this tedious!  We should rather choose limited circles and endeavour to find and promote morals for them: for instance we should make speeches to wolves with the object of turning them into dogs; but above all the greatest success will remain for the man who does not seek to educate either everybody or certain limited circles but only one single individual and who cannot be turned to the right or left from his straight purpose.  The last century was superior to ours precisely because it possessed so many individually educated men as well as educators in the same proportion who had made this their life's task and who with this task were dignified not only in their own eyes but in those of all the remaining "good society".  


The so-called Classical Education Alas!  we discover that our life is consecrated to knowledge and that we should throw it away nay that we should even have to throw it away if this consecration did not protect us from ourselves: we repeat this couplet and not without deep emotion: Thee Fate I follow though I fain would not.  And yet I must with many a sigh and groan!  And then in looking backwards over the course of our lives we discover that there is one thing that cannot be restored to us: the wasted period of our youth when our teachers did not utilise these ardent and eager years to lead us to the knowledge of things but merely to this so-called "classical education "!  Only think of this wasted youth when we were inoculated clumsily and painfully with an imperfect knowledge of the Greeks and Romans as well as of their languages contrary to the highest principle of all culture which holds that we should not give food except to those who hunger for it!  Think of that period of our lives when we had mathematics and physics forced down our throats instead of being first of all made acquainted with the despair of ignorance instead of having our little daily life our activities and everything occurring in our houses our workshops in the sky and in nature split up into thousands of problems painful humiliating and irritating problems—and thus having our curiosity made acquainted with the fact that we first of all require a mathematical and mechanical knowledge before we can be allowed to rejoice in the absolute logic of this knowledge!  If we had only been imbued with reverence for those branches of science if we had only been made to tremble with emotion—were it only for once—at the struggles the defeats and the renewed combats of those great men of the martyrdom which is the history of pure science!  Yet on the contrary we were allowed to develop a certain contempt for those sciences in favour of historical training formal education and "classicism".  And we allowed ourselves to be so easily deceived!  Formal education!  Might we not have pointed to the best teachers at our high schools and asked laughingly "Where then do they keep their formal education?  And if it is wanting in them how can they teach it?  "And classicism!  Did we get any of that instruction which the ancients used to impart to their youth?  Did we learn to speak or to write like them?  Did we ceaselessly exercise ourselves in that duel of speech dialectic?  Did we learn to move as beautifully and proudly as they did and to excel as they did in wrestling throwing and boxing?  Did we learn anything of that practical asceticism of all the Greek philosophers?  Did we receive any training in a single ancient virtue and in the way in which the ancients were trained in it?  Was not all meditation upon morals wanting in our education?  And how much more the only possible criticism on the subject of morality those courageous and earnest attempts to live according to this or that morality!  Did our teachers ever stir up a feeling in us which the ancients valued more highly than moderns?  Did they in the spirit of the ancients indicate to us the divisions of the day and of life and those aims by which the lives of the ancients were guided?  Did we learn the ancient languages as we now learn the modern ones viz.  that we might speak them fluently and well?  Nowhere can we find a real proficiency or any new faculty as the result of those toilsome years!  only the knowledge of what men had learnt and were able to do in past ages!  And what knowledge!  Nothing becomes clearer to me year by year than the fact that the entire Greek and ancient mode of life however simple and evident it must seem to our eyes is in truth very difficult to understand and even scarcely accessible and that the customary ease with which we babble about the ancients is either giddy levity or the old hereditary conceit of our thoughtlessness.  We are deceived by words and ideas which appear to resemble our own but behind them there is always concealed a feeling which must be strange incomprehensible or painful to our modern concept s.  And these are realms in which boys are allowed to roam about!  Enough: we roamed about them in our childhood and there we became seized with an almost ineradicable antipathy for all antiquity the antipathy arising from an intimacy which was apparently too great!  For so great is the conceit of our classical teachers who would almost make it appear that they had gained full control over the ancients that they pass on this conceit to their pupils together with the suspicion that such a possession is of little use for making people happy but is good enough for honest foolish old bookworms.  "Let them brood over their treasure: it is well worthy of them!  "— It is with this unexpressed thought that we completed our classical education.  It can't be changed now—for us at all events!  Yet let us not think of ourselves alone!  


What am I really doing and why am I doing it? That is the question of truth which is not taught under our present system of education and is consequently not asked because we have no time for it.    On the other hand we have always time and inclination for talking nonsense with children rather than telling them the truth; for flattering women who will later on be mothers rather than telling them the truth; and for speaking with young men about their future and their pleasures rather than about the truth!  Yet what after all are seventy years!  Time passes and they soon come to an end; it matters as little to us as it does to the wave to know how and to where it is rolling!  No it might even be wisdom not to know it.  "Agreed; but it shows a want of pride not even to inquire into the matter; our culture does not tend to make people proud".  "So much the better"!  "Is it really?"  


Enmity of the Germans towards Enlightenment Let us consider the contributions which in the first half of this century the Germans made to general culture by their intellectual work.  In the first place let us take the German philosophers: they went back to the first and oldest stage of speculation for they were content with concept s instead of explanations like the thinkers of dreamy epochs—a pre-scientific type of philosophy was thus revived by them.  Secondly we have the German historians and romanticists: their efforts on the whole aimed at restoring to the place of honour certain old and primitive sentiments especially Christianity the "soul of the people" folklore folk—speech mediaevalism Oriental asceticism and Hinduism.  In the third place there are the natural philosophers who fought against the spirit of Newton and Voltaire and like Goethe and Schopenhauer endeavoured to re-establish the idea of a deified or diabolised nature and of its absolute ethical and symbolical meaning.  The main general tendency of the Germans was directed against enlightenment and against those social revolutions which were stupidly mistaken for the consequences of enlightenment: the piety towards everything that existed tried to become piety towards everything that had ever existed only in order that heart and mind might be permitted to fill themselves and gush forth again thus leaving no space for future and novel aims.  The cult of feeling took the place of the cult of reason and the German musicians as the best exponents of all that is invisible enthusiastic legendary and passionate showed themselves more successful in building up the new temple than all the other artists in words and thoughts.  If in considering these details we have taken into account the fact that many good things were said and investigated and that many things have since then been more fairly judged than on any previous occasion there yet remains to be said of the whole that it was a general danger and one by no means small to set knowledge altogether below feeling under the appearance of an entire and definitive acquaintance with the past—and to use that expression of Kant who thus defined his own particular task—"To make way again for belief by fixing the limits of knowledge".  Let us once more breathe freely the hour of this danger is past!  And yet strange to say the very spirits which these Germans conjured up with such eloquence have at length become the most dangerous for the intentions of those who did conjure them up: history the comprehension of origin and development sympathy with the past the new passion for feeling and knowledge after they had been for a long time at the service of this obscure exalted and retrograde spirit have once more assumed another nature and are now soaring with outstretched wings above the heads of those who once upon a time conjured them forth as new and stronger genii of that very enlightenment to combat which they had been resuscitated.  It is this enlightenment which we have now to carry forward—caring nothing for the fact that there has been and still is "a great revolution" and again a great "reaction "against it: these are but playful crests of foam when compared with the truly great current on which we float and want to float.  


Assigning Prestige to one's Country It is the men of culture who determine the rank of their country and they are characterised by an innumerable number of great inward experiences which they have digested and can now value justly.  In France and Italy this fell to the lot of the nobility; in Germany where up to now the nobility has been as a rule composed of men who had not much intellect to boast about (perhaps this will soon cease to be the case) it was the task of the priests the school teachers and their descendants.  


We are Nobler Fidelity generosity concern for one's good reputation: these three qualities combined in one sentiment we call noble distinguished aristocratic; and in this respect we excel the Greeks.  We do not wish to give this up at any cost under the pretext that the ancient objects of these virtues have rightly fallen in esteem but we wish cautiously to substitute new objects for these most precious and hereditary impulses.  To understand why the sentiments of the noblest Greeks must be considered as inferior and scarcely respectable in the present age where we are still under the influence of the chivalric and feudal nobility we must recall the words of consolation to which Ulysses gave utterance in the midst of the most humiliating situations "Bear with it my dear heart bear with it!  Thou hast borne with many more swinish things than these"!  As an instance of this mythical example consider also the tale of that Athenian officer who when threatened with a stick by another officer in the presence of the entire general staff shook off his disgrace with the words "Strike but listen to me".  (This was Themistocles that ingenious Ulysses of the classical epoch who was just the man at the moment of disgrace to address to his "dear heart "that verse of comfort and affliction.)  The Greeks were far from making light of life and death because of an insult as we influenced by a hereditary spirit of chivalric adventurousness and self-devotion are in the habit of doing; or from looking for opportunities of honourably risking life and death as in duels; or from valuing the preservation of an unstained name (honour) more than the acquirement of an evil reputation when the latter was compatible with glory and the feeling of power; or from remaining faithful to the prejudices and the articles of faith of a caste when these could prevent them from becoming tyrants.  For this is the ignoble secret of the good Greek aristocrat: out of sheer jealousy he treats everyone of the members of his caste as being on an equal footing with himself but he is ready at every moment to spring like a tiger on his prey—despotism.  What matter lies murders treason or the betrayal of his native city to him!  Justice was an extremely difficult matter for people of this kind to understand—nay justice was almost something incredible.  "The just man" was to the Greeks what "the saint" was to the Christians.  When Socrates however laid down the axiom "The most virtuous man is the happiest" they could not believe their ears; they thought they had heard a madman speaking.  For as a picture of the happiest man every nobleman had in his mind the cheeky audacity and devilry of the tyrant who sacrifices everything and everyone to his own exuberance and pleasure.  Among people whose imagination secretly raved about such happiness the worship of the State could not of course have been too deeply implanted—but I think that men whose desire for power does not rage so blindly as that of the Greek noblemen no longer stand in need of such idolatry of the State by means of which in past ages such a passion was kept within due bounds.  


Endurance of Poverty There is one great advantage in noble extraction: it makes us endure poverty better.  


The Future of the Nobility The bearing of the aristocratic classes shows that in all the members of their body the consciousness of power is continually playing its fascinating game.  Thus people of aristocratic habits men or women never sink worn out into a chair; when everyone else makes himself comfortable as in a train for example they avoid reclining at their ease; they do not appear to get tired after standing at Court for hours at a stretch; they do not furnish their houses in a comfortable manner but in such a way as to produce the impression of something grand and imposing as if they had to serve as a residence for greater and taller beings; they reply to a provoking speech with dignity and clearness of mind and not as if scandalised crushed shamed or out of breath in the plebeian fashion.  As the aristocrat is able to preserve the appearance of being possessed of a superior physical force which never leaves him he likewise wishes by his aspect of constant serenity and civility of disposition even in the most trying circumstances to convey the impression that his mind and soul are equal to all dangers and surprises.  A noble culture may resemble so far as passions are concerned either a horseman who takes pleasure in making his proud and fiery animal trot in the Spanish fashion—we have only to recollect the age of Louis XIV.  —or like the rider who feels his horse dart away with him like the elemental forces to such a degree that both horse and rider come near losing their heads but owing to the enjoyment of the delight do keep very clear heads: in both these cases this aristocratic culture breathes power and if very often in its customs only the appearance of the feeling of power is required nevertheless the real sense of superiority continues constantly to increase as the result of the impression which this display makes upon those who are not aristocrats.  This indisputable happiness of aristocratic culture based as it is on the feeling of superiority is now beginning to rise to ever higher levels; for now thanks to the free spirits it is henceforth permissible and not dishonourable for people who have been born and reared in aristocratic circles to enter the realm of knowledge where they may secure more intellectual consecrations and learn chivalric services even higher than those of former times and where they may look up to that ideal of victorious wisdom which as yet no age has been able to set before itself with so good a conscience as the period which is about to dawn.  Lastly what is to be the occupation of the nobility in the future if it becomes more evident from day to day that it is less and less indecorus to take any part in politics?  


The Care of the Health We have scarcely begun to devote any attention to the physiology of criminals and yet we have already reached the inevitable conclusion that between criminals and madmen there is no really essential difference: if we suppose that the current moral fashion of thinking is a healthy way of thinking.  No belief however is nowadays more firmly believed in than this one so we should not therefore shrink from drawing the inevitable conclusion and treating the criminal like a lunatic—above all not with haughty pitifulness but with medical skill and good will.  He may perhaps be in need of a change of air a change of society or temporary absence: perhaps of solitude and new occupations—very well!  He may perhaps feel that it would be to his advantage to live under surveillance for a short time in order thus to obtain protection from himself and from a troublesome tyrannical impulse—very well!  We should make clear to him the possibility and the means of curing him (the extermination transformation and sublimation of these impulses) and also in the worst cases the improbability of a cure; and we should offer to the incurable criminal who has become a useless burden to himself the opportunity of committing suicide.  While holding this in reserve as an extreme measure of relief we should neglect nothing which would tend above all to restore to the criminal his good courage and freedom of spirit.  We should free his soul from all remorse as if it were something unclean and show him how he may atone for a wrong which he may have done some one by benefiting someone else perhaps the community at large in such a way that he might even do more than balance his previous offence.  All this must be done with the greatest tact!  The criminal must above all remain anonymous or adopt an assumed name changing his place of residence frequently so that his reputation and future life may suffer as little as possible.  At the present time it is true that the man who has been injured apart altogether from the manner in which this injury might be redressed wishes for revenge in addition and applies to the courts that he may obtain it—and this is why our dreadful penal laws are still in force: Justice as it were holding up a pair of shopkeeper's scales and endeavouring to balance the guilt by punishment; but can we not take a step beyond this?  Would it not be a great relief to the general sentiment of life if while getting rid of our belief in guilt we could also get rid of our old craving for vengeance and gradually come to believe that it is a refined wisdom for happy men to bless their enemies and to do good to those who have offended them exactly in accordance with the spirit of Christian teaching!  Let us free the world from this idea of sin and take care to cast out with it the idea of punishment.  May these monstrous ideas henceforth live banished far from the abodes of men—if indeed they must live at all and do not perish from disgust with themselves.  Let us not forget also however that the injury caused to society and to the individual by the criminal is of the same species as that caused by the sick: for the sick spread cares and ill-humour; they are non—productive consume the earnings of others and at the same time require attendance doctors and support and they really live on the time and strength of the healthy.  In spite of this however we should designate as inhuman anyone who for this reason would wish to wreak vengeance on the sick.  In past ages indeed this was actually done: in primitive conditions of society and even now among certain savage peoples the sick man is treated as a criminal and as a danger to the community and it is believed that he is the resting—place of certain demoniacal beings who have entered into his body as the result of some offence he has committed—those ages and peoples hold that the sick are the guilty!  And what of ourselves?  Are we not yet ripe for the contrary concept?  Shall we not be allowed to say "The guilty are the sick "?  No; the hour for that has not yet come.  We still lack above all those physicians who have learnt something from what we have to date called practical morals and have" transformed it into the art and science of healing.  We still lack that intense interest in those things which some day perhaps may seem not unlike the "storm and stress "of those old religious ecstasies.  The Churches have not yet come into the possession of those who look after our health; the study of the body and of dietary are not yet amongst the obligatory subjects taught in our primary and secondary schools; there are as yet no quiet associations of those people who are pledged to one another to do without the help of law courts and who renounce the punishment and vengeance now meted out to those who have offended against society.  No thinker has as yet been daring enough to evaluate the health of society or of individuals according to the number of parasites which it can support: and no statesman has yet been found to use the ploughshare in the spirit of that generous and tender saying "If thou wilt till the land till it with the plough; then the bird and the wolf walking behind thy plough will rejoice in thee—all creatures will rejoice in thee".  


Against Bad Diet Fie upon the meals which people nowadays eat in hotels and everywhere else where the well—off classes of society live!  Even when eminent men of science meet together their tables groan under the weight of the dishes in accordance with the principle of the bankers: the principle of too many dishes and too much to eat.  The result of this is that dinners are prepared with a view to their mere appearance rather than the consequences that may follow from eating them and that stimulating drinks are required to help in driving away the heaviness in the stomach and in the brain.  Fie on the dissoluteness and extreme nervousness which must follow upon all this!  Fie upon the dreams that such repasts bring!  Fie upon the arts and books which must be the desert of such meals!  Despite all the efforts of such people their acts will taste of pepper and ill-temper or general weariness!  (The wealthy classes in England stand in great need of their Christianity in order to be able to endure their bad digestions and their headaches.)  Finally to mention not only the disgusting but also the more pleasant side of the matter these people are by no means mere gluttons: our century and its spirit of activity has more power over the limbs than the belly.  What then is the meaning of these banquets?  They represent!  What in Heaven's name do they represent?  Rank?  no money!  There is no rank now!  We are all "individuals"!  Yet money now stands for power glory pre-eminence dignity and influence; money at the present time acts as a greater or lesser moral prejudice for a man in proportion to the amount he may possess.  Nobody wishes to hide it under a bushel or display it in heaps on a table: hence money must have some representative which can be put on the table—so behold our banquets!  


Danae and the God of Gold Whence arises this excessive impatience in our day which turns men into criminals even in circumstances which would be more likely to bring about the contrary tendency?  What induces one man to use false weights another to set his house on fire after having insured it for more than its value a third to take part in counterfeiting while three—fourths of our upper classes indulge in legalised fraud and suffer from the pangs of conscience that follow speculation and dealings on the Stock Exchange: what gives rise to all this?  It is not real want—for their existence is by no means precarious; perhaps they have even enough to eat and drink without worrying—but they are urged on day and night by a terrible impatience at seeing their wealth pile up so slowly and by an equally terrible longing and love for these heaps of gold.  In this impatience and love however we see re-appear once more that fanaticism of the desire for power which was stimulated in former times by the belief that we were in the possession of truth a fanaticism which bore such beautiful names that we could dare to be inhuman with a good conscience (burning Jews heretics and good books and exterminating entire cultures superior to ours such as those of Peru and Mexico).  The means of this desire for power are changed in our day but the same volcano is still smouldering impatience and intemperate love call for their victims and what was once done "for the love of God "is now done for the love of money i.  e.  for the love of that which at present affords us the highest feeling of power and a good conscience.  


The People of Israel One of the spectacles which the next century will invite us to witness is the decision regarding the fate of the European Jews.  It is quite obvious now that they have cast their die and crossed their Rubicon: the only thing that remains for them is either to become masters of Europe or to lose Europe as they once centuries ago lost Egypt where they were confronted with similar alternatives.  In Europe however they have gone through a schooling of eighteen centuries such as no other nation has ever undergone and the experiences of this dreadful time of probation have benefited not only the Jewish community but even to a greater extent the individual.  As a consequence of this the resourcefulness of the modern Jews both in mind and soul is extraordinary.  Amongst all the inhabitants of Europe it is the Jews least of all who try to escape from any deep distress by recourse to drink or to suicide as other less gifted people are so prone to do.  Every Jew can find in the history of his own family and of his ancestors a long record of instances of the greatest coolness and perseverance amid difficulties and dreadful situations an artful cunning in fighting with misfortune and hazard.  And above all it is their bravery under the cloak of wretched submission their heroic spernere se sperni that surpasses the virtues of all the saints.  People wished to make them contemptible by treating them contemptibly for nearly twenty centuries and refusing them access to all honourable positions and dignities and by pushing them further down into the meaner trades—and under this process indeed they have not become any cleaner.  Yet contemptible?  They have never ceased for a moment from believing themselves qualified for the very highest functions nor have the virtues of the suffering ever ceased to adorn them.  Their manner of honouring their parents and children the rationality of their marriages and marriage customs distinguishes them amongst all Europeans.  Besides this they have been able to create for themselves a sense of power and eternal vengeance from the very trades that were left to them (or to which they were abandoned).  Even in palliation of their usury we cannot help saying that without this occasional pleasant and useful torture inflicted on their scorners they would have experienced difficulty in preserving their self-respect for so long.  For our self respect depends upon our ability to make requital, for good or for evil.  Nevertheless their revenge never urges them on too far for they all have that liberty of mind and even of soul produced in men by frequent changes of place climate and customs of neighbours and oppressors they possess by far the greatest experience in all human intercourse and even in their passions they exercise the caution which this experience has developed in them.  They are so certain of their intellectual versatility and shrewdness that they never even when reduced to the direst straits have to earn their bread by manual labour as common workmen porters or farm hands.  In their manners we can still see that they have never been inspired by chivalric and noble feelings or that their bodies have ever been girt with fine weapons: a certain obtrusiveness alternates with a submissiveness which is often tender and almost always painful.  Now however that they unavoidably inter-marry more and more year after year with the noblest blood of Europe they will soon have a considerable heritage of good intellectual and physical manners so that in another hundred years they will have a sufficiently noble aspect not to render themselves as masters ridiculous to those whom they will have subdued.  And this is important!  And therefore a settlement of the question is still premature.  They themselves know very well that the conquest of Europe or any act of violence is not to be thought of; but they also know that some day or other Europe may like a ripe fruit fall into their hands if they do not clutch at it too eagerly.  In the meantime it is necessary for them to distinguish themselves in all departments of European distinction and to stand in the front rank: until they shall have advanced so far as to determine themselves what distinction shall mean.  Then they will be called the pioneers and guides of the Europeans whose modesty they will no longer offend.  And then where shall an outlet be found for this abundant wealth of great impressions accumulated during such an extended period and representing Jewish history for every Jewish family this wealth of passions virtues resolutions resignations struggles and conquests of all kinds—where can it find an outlet but in great intellectual men and works!  On the day when the Jews will be able to exhibit to us as their own work such jewels and golden vessels as no European nation with its shorter and less profound experience can or could produce when Israel shall have changed its eternal vengeance into an eternal benediction for Europe: then that seventh day will once more appear when old Jehovah may rejoice in Himself in His creation in His chosen people—and all all of us will rejoice with Him!  


The Impossible Class Poverty cheerfulness and independence—it is possible to find these three qualities combined in one individual; poverty cheerfulness and slavery—this is likewise a possible combination: and I can say nothing better to the workmen who serve as factory slaves; presuming that it does not appear to them altogether to be a shameful thing to be utilised as they are as the screws of a machine and the stopgaps as it were of the human spirit of invention.  Fie on the thought that merely by means of higher wages the essential part of their misery i.  e.  their impersonal enslavement might be removed!  Fie that we should allow ourselves to be convinced that by an increase of this impersonality within the mechanical working of a new society the disgrace of slavery could be changed into a virtue!  Fie; that there should be a regular price at which a man should cease to be a personality and become a screw instead!  Are you accomplices in the present madness of nations which desire above all to produce as much as possible and to be as rich as possible?  Would it not be your duty to present a counter-claim to them and to show them what large sums of internal value are wasted in the pursuit of such an external object?  Yet where is your inner value when you no longer know what it is to breathe freely; when you no longer have freedom over your own selves  and often feel disgusted with yourselves as with some stale food; when you zealously study the newspapers and look enviously at your wealthy neighbour made covetous by the rapid rise and fall of power money and opinions: when you no longer believe in a philosophy in rags or in the freedom of spirit of a man who has few needs; when a voluntary and idyllic poverty without profession or marriage such as should suit the more intellectual ones among you has become for you an object of derision? On the other hand the piping of the Socialistic rat-catchers who wish to inspire you with foolish hopes is continually sounding in your ears: they tell you to be ready and nothing further ready from this day to the next so that you wait and wait for something to come from outside though living in all other respects as you lived before-until this waiting is at length changed into hunger and thirst and fever and madness and the day of the bestia triumphans at last dawns in all its glory.  Everyone of you should on the contrary say to himself: "It would be better to emigrate and endeavour to become a master in new and savage countries and especially to become master over myself changing my place of abode whenever the least sign of slavery threatens me endeavouring to avoid neither adventure nor war and if things come to the worst holding myself ready to die: anything rather than continuing in this state of disgraceful thraldom this bitterness malice and rebelliousness!  "This would be the proper spirit: the workmen in Europe ought to make it clear that their position as a class has become a human impossibility and not merely as they at present maintain the result of some hard and aimless arrangement of society.  They should bring about an age of great swarming forth from the European beehive such as has never yet been seen protesting by this voluntary and huge migration against machines and capital and the alternatives that now threaten them either of becoming slaves of the State or slaves of some revolutionary party.  May Europe be freed from one-fourth of her inhabitants!  Both she and they will experience a sensation of relief.  It is only far in the distance in the undertaking of vast colonisations that we shall be able to observe how much rationality fairness and healthy suspicion mother Europe has incorporated in her sons—these sons who could no longer endure life in the home of the dull old woman always running the danger of becoming as bad tempered irritable and pleasure-seeking as she herself The European virtues will travel along with these workmen far beyond the boundaries of Europe; and those very qualities which on their native soil had begun to degenerate into a dangerous discontent and criminal inclinations will when abroad be transformed into a beautiful savage naturalness and will be called heroism; so that at last a purer air would again be wafted over this old over-populated and brooding Europe of ours.  What would it matter if there was a scarcity of "hands "?  Perhaps people would then recollect that they had accustomed themselves to many wants merely because it was easy to gratify them—it would be sufficient to unlearn some of these wants!  Perhaps also Chinamen would be called in and these would bring with them their modes of living and thinking which would be found very suitable for industrious ants.  They would also perhaps help to imbue this fretful and restless Europe with some of their Asiatic calmness and contemplation and—what is perhaps most needful of all—their Asiatic stability.  


The Attitude of the Germans to Morality A German is capable of great things but he is unlikely to accomplish them for he obeys whenever he can as suits a naturally lazy intellect.  If he is ever in the dangerous situation of having to stand alone and cast aside his sloth when he finds it no longer possible to disappear like a cipher in a number (in which respect he is far inferior to a Frenchman or an Englishman) he shows his true strength: then he becomes dangerous evil deep and audacious and exhibits to the light of day that wealth of latent energy which he had previously carried hidden in himself and in which no one not even himself had ever believed.  When in such a case a German obeys himself—it is very exceptional for him to do so—he does so with the same heaviness inflexibility and endurance with which he obeys his prince and performs his official duties: so that as I have said he is then capable of great things which bear no relation to the "weak disposition "he attributes to himself.  As a rule however he is afraid of depending upon himself alone he is afraid of taking the initiative: that is why Germany uses up so many officials and so much ink.  Light-heartedness is a stranger to the German; he is too timid for it: but in entirely new situations which rouse him from his torpor he exhibits an almost frivolous spirit.  He then delights in the novelty of his new position as if it were some intoxicating drink and he is as we know quite a connoisseur in intoxication.  It thus happens that the German of the present day is almost always frivolous in politics though even here he has the advantage and prejudice of thoroughness and seriousness; and although he may take full advantage of these qualities in negotiations with other political powers he nevertheless rejoices inwardly at being able for once in his life to feel enthusiastic and capricious to show his fondness for innovations and to change persons parties and hopes as if they were masks.  Those learned German scholars who to date have been considered as the most German of Germans were and perhaps still are as good as the German soldiers on account of their profound and almost childish inclination to obey in all external things and on account of being often compelled to stand alone in science and to answer for many things: if they can only preserve their proud simple and patient disposition and their freedom from political madness at those times when the wind changes we may yet expect great things from them—such as they are or such as they were they are the embryonic stage of something higher.  So far the advantages and disadvantages of the Germans including even their learned men have been that they were more given to superstition and showed greater eagerness to believe than any of the other nations; their vices are and always have been their drunkenness and suicidal inclinations (the latter a proof of the clumsiness of their intellect which is easily tempted to throw away the reins).  Their danger is to be sought in everything that binds down the faculties of reason and unchains the passions (as for example the excessive use of music and spirits) for the German passion acts contrarily to its own advantage and is as self destructive as the passions of the drunkard.  Indeed German enthusiasm is worth less than that of other nations for it is barren.  When a German ever did anything great it was done at a time of danger or when his courage was high with his teeth firmly set and his prudence on the alert and often enough in a fit of generosity.  Intercourse with these Germans is indeed advisable for almost every one of them has something to give if we can only understand how to make him find it or rather recover it (for he is very untidy in storing away his knowledge).  Well: when people of this type occupy themselves with morals what precisely will be the morality that will satisfy them?  In the first place they will wish to see idealised in their morals their sincere instinct for obedience.  "Man must have something which he can implicitly obey"—this is a German sentiment a German deduction; it is the basis of all German moral teaching.  How different is the impression however when we compare this with the entire morality of the ancient world!  All those Greek thinkers however varied they may appear to us seem to resemble as moralists the gymnastic teacher who encourages his pupils by saying "Come follow me!  Submit to my discipline!  Then perhaps you may carry off the prize from all the other Greeks".  Personal distinction: such was the virtue of antiquity.  Submission obedience whether public or private: such is German virtue.  Long before Kant set forth his doctrine of the Categorical Imperative Luther actuated by the same impulse said that there surely must be a being in whom man could trust implicitly—it was his proof of the existence of God; it was his wish coarser and more popular than that of Kant that people should implicitly obey a person and not an idea and Kant also finally took his roundabout route through morals merely that he might secure obedience for the person.  This is indeed the worship of the German the more so as there is now less worship left in his religion.  The Greeks and Romans had other opinions on these matters and would have laughed at such "there must be a being ": it is part of the boldness of their Southern nature to take up a stand against "implicit belief" and to retain in their inmost heart a trace of scepticism against all and everyone whether God man or idea.  The thinker of antiquity went even further and said nil admirari: in this phrase he saw reflected all philosophy.  A German Schopenhauer goes so far in the contrary direction as to say: admirari id est philosophari.  Yet what if as happens now and then the German should attain to that state of mind which would enable him to perform great things?  If the hour of exception becomes the hour of disobedience?  I do not think Schopenhauer is right in saying that the single advantage the Germans have over other nations is that there are more atheists among them than elsewhere; but I do know this: whenever the German reaches the state in which he is capable of great things he invariably raises himself above morals!  And why should he not?  Now he has something new to do viz.  to command—either himself or others!  Yet this German morality of his has not taught him how to command!  Commanding has been forgotten in it.  

Friedrich Nietzsche, "Ecce Homo" Ebook

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