Friedrich Nietzsche, Daybreak:  Reflections on Moral Prejudice. Morgenröte: Gedanken über die moralischen Vorurteile (also could be translated as The Dawn).

Written and published in 1881.

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When a war has come to an unsuccessful conclusion we try to find the man who is to blame for the war; when it comes to a successful conclusion we praise the man who is responsible for it.  All failures gives rise to a sense of dejection against which a single remedy is invariably applied; a fresh incitement of the sense of power; and this incitement is found in the condemnation of the "guilty ".  This guilty is not perhaps the scapegoat of the faults of others; he is merely the victim of the feeble, humiliated and depressed people who wish to demonstrate upon someone that they have not yet lost all their power.  Even self condemnation after a defeat may be the means of restoring the feeling of power.  On the other hand, glorification of the successful originator is often but an equally blind consequence of another drive that seeks its prey—and in this case the sacrifice appears to be sweet and attractive even for the victim.  This happens when the feeling of power is satiated in a nation or a society by so great and fascinating a success that a weariness of victory sets in and pride is set aside: a feeling of self sacrifice rises up and looks for its object.  Thus whether we are blamed or praised, we merely provide opportunities for the fulfilment of others, we are caught up in our neighbours need to discharge upon us their overfull desire to praise or blame.  In both cases we provide a benefit for others for which we deserve no credit and they no thanks.  

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