Friedrich Nietzsche, Daybreak:  Reflections on Moral Prejudice. Morgenröte: Gedanken über die moralischen Vorurteile (also could be translated as The Dawn).

Written and published in 1881.

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On all sides we now hear the aim of morals defined as the preservation and advancement of humanity; but this is merely the expression of a wish to have a formula and nothing more.  Preservation of what?  Advancement to what?  These are questions which must be asked.  Is not the most important point that the answers to these questions are not contained in the formula?  What contribution does this make as regards our own actions and duties—which is not already tacitly and instinctively understood?  Can we understand from this formula whether we must prolong as far as possible the existence of the human race or bring about the greatest possible evolution in man from the animal?  How different the means i.  e.  the practical morals would have to be in these two cases!  Supposing that the greatest possible rationality were given to mankind, this certainly would not guarantee the longest possible existence for mankind!  Or supposing that the "greatest happiness "was thought to be the answer, do we thereby mean the highest degree of happiness for a few individuals or a necessarily unquantifiable average state of happiness for all?  And why should morality be the way to achieve it?  Has not morality considered as a whole opened up so many sources of displeasure as to lead us to think that man up to the present with every new refinement of morality has become more and more discontented with himself, with others and with his own lot?  Has not the most moral of men to date believed that the only justifiable state of mankind in the face of morals is that of the most profound misery?  

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